Transfusion was a Limited release in 2023 on Friday, March 3, 2023. There were 11 other movies released on the same date, including Creed III, Operation Fortune: Ruse de guerre and Children of the Corn . As a Limited release, Transfusion will only be shown in select movie theaters across major markets. Please check Fandango and Atom Tickets to see if the film is playing in your area.
Background: Management of bleeding trauma patients is still a difficult challenge. Massive transfusion (MT) requires resources to ensure the safety and timely delivery of blood products. Early prediction of MT need may be useful to shorten the time process of blood product preparation. The primary aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of shock index to predict the need for MT in adult patients with trauma. For the same population, we also assessed the accuracy of SI to predict mortality.
As hospitals and EMS systems across the United States look to incorporate blood products into prehospital treatment protocols, ensuring that prehospital providers understand what each component of transfusion contains, when each product is indicated, and the mechanisms of action associated with each type will be paramount to high quality care and patient safety. Blood products can be prepared from multiple donors and contain varying amounts, so an understanding of exactly how local blood products are screened, prepared, and stored for use should be incorporated into prehospital protocol development.9 The most common preparations, indications, and treatment responses are presented here. Each blood product must be stored very differently, with refrigeration capabilities often necessary for product preservation.9
After blood is donated, it is processed through centrifugation. Centrifugation is the process of spinning the blood at high rates of speed, separating plasma, proteins, and blood cells by weight.9 This process allows for segregation into four different blood products: plasma, red blood cells, platelets, and cryoprecipitate. Each unit also can undergo leukoreduction: the process of removing white blood cells and other immunologic components from the blood in order to minimize chances of a transfusion reaction.9
Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) is blood plasma with cells removed. Each unit of FFP contains the clotting factors necessary to support coagulation through the clotting cascade, as well as the thrombin and fibrinogen required to bind platelets together into a stable clot. FFP also contains albumin and other colloid proteins, which help maintain intra-vascular volume better than crystalloid solutions. FFP is most commonly indicated to replace clotting factors in patients who are deficient, for example, patients on warfarin or those with chronic liver disease. Multiple doses of FFP may be required to replace the necessary clotting factors, and laboratory monitoring is often used in conjunction with FFP administration.13 Prothrombin concentrate complex (PCC) is another type of plasma-based product that contains concentrated clotting factors equivalent to multiple doses of FFP. PCC is typically indicated for patients on warfarin with intra-cranial or life-threatening hemorrhage. Studies have shown that PCC can be infused faster and is more effective at reversing coagulopathy than sequential FFP transfusions.14
Finally, instead of being broken down into different blood products, it is possible for whole blood to be transfused. Whole blood contains red blood cells, platelets, and plasma containing clotting factors with fibrinogen. Transfusion of whole blood provides all four components at once, which allows for simultaneous replacement of the cells and proteins lost in hemorrhage. Whole blood has been shown to be safe for prehospital transfusion, reduce mortality in trauma patients, and reduce the morbidity associated with significant crystalloid transfusions.17,18
6.) Ditzel Jr RM, Anderson JL, Eisenhart WJ, Rankin CJ, DeFeo DR, Oak S, Siegler J. A review of transfusion-and trauma-induced hypocalcemia: Is it time to change the lethal triad to the lethal diamond?. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery. 2020 Mar 1;88(3):434-9.
10.) Valentine SL, Bembea MM, Muszynski JA, Cholette JM, Doctor A, Spinella PC, Steiner ME, Tucci M, Hassan NE, Parker RI, Lacroix J. Consensus recommendations for red blood cell transfusion practice in critically ill children from the pediatric critical care transfusion and anemia expertise initiative. Pediatric critical care medicine: a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies. 2018 Sep;19(9):884.
12.) Carson JL, Terrin ML, Noveck H, Sanders DW, Chaitman BR, Rhoads GG, Nemo G, Dragert K, Beaupre L, Hildebrand K, Macaulay W. Liberal or restrictive transfusion in high-risk patients after hip surgery. New England Journal of Medicine. 2011 Dec 29;365(26):2453-62.
15.) Furay E, Daley M, Teixeira PG, Coopwood TB, Aydelotte JD, Malesa N, Tellinghuisen C, Ali S, Brown LH, Brown CV. Goal-directed platelet transfusions correct platelet dysfunction and may improve survival in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery. 2018 Nov 1;85(5):881-7.
This Blood Transfusion Market report offers a detailed analysis supported by reliable statistics on sales and revenue by players for the period 2017-2023. The report also includes a company description, major business, Blood Transfusion product introduction, recent developments, and Blood Transfusion sales by region, type, application, and sales channel. Company profiles and market share analysis of the prominent players are also provided in this section.
The Global Blood Transfusion market is anticipated to rise at a considerable rate during the forecast period, between 2023 and 2028. In 2021, the market is growing at a steady rate and with the rising adoption of strategies by key players, the market is expected to rise over the projected horizon.
Blood Transfusion is generally the process of receiving blood or blood products into one's circulation intravenously. Transfusions are used for various medical conditions to replace lost components of the blood. In the report, we counted the Blood Transfusion set.Market Analysis and Insights: Global Blood Transfusion MarketDue to the COVID-19 pandemic, the global Blood Transfusion market size is estimated to be worth USD 88 million in 2022 and is forecast to a readjusted size of USD 107.1 million by 2028 with a CAGR of 3.3% during the review period. Fully considering the economic change by this health crisis, Y-type accounting for % of the Blood Transfusion global market in 2021, is projected to value USD million by 2028, growing at a revised % CAGR in the post-COVID-19 period. While Child segment is altered to an % CAGR throughout this forecast period.The global blood transfusion sets are mainly produced in Europe, and Europe accounts for more than 40% share of production, followed by North America and China. In China, there are many small scale manufacturers to produce blood transfusion sets, but the Chinese blood transfusion sets product qualities are relatively low, and its products are mainly exported to some developing countries, such as Africa and South America.Global Blood Transfusion Scope and SegmentBlood Transfusion market is segmented by Type and by End User. Players, stakeholders, and other participants in the global Blood Transfusion market will be able to gain the upper hand as they use the report as a powerful resource. The segmental analysis focuses on sales, revenue and forecast by Type and by End User for the period 2017-2028.
PRINCETON, N.J.--(BUSINESS WIRE)-- Bristol Myers Squibb (NYSE: BMY) today announced that the European Commission (EC) has granted full Marketing Authorization for Reblozyl (luspatercept), a first-in-class therapeutic option, for treatment in adult patients of anemia associated with non-transfusion-dependent (NTD) beta thalassemia. Reblozyl is currently approved in the European Union (EU), United States and Canada to address anemia associated with transfusion-dependent beta thalassemia and transfusion-dependent lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes. The centralized Marketing Authorization approves use of Reblozyl in all EU member states, as well as Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.*
The EC approval of Reblozyl was based on results from the Phase 2 BEYOND study, evaluating the efficacy and safety of Reblozyl versus placebo in 145 adults with NTD beta thalassemia. Patients were eligible to receive best supportive care, including red blood cell transfusions and iron-chelating agents.
In adult patients with transfusion-dependent beta thalassemia, EMH masses were observed in 3.2% of REBLOZYL-treated patients, with spinal cord compression symptoms due to EMH masses occurring in 1.9% of patients (BELIEVE and REBLOZYL long-term follow-up study).
In a study of adult patients with non-transfusion-dependent beta thalassemia, a higher incidence of EMH masses was observed in 6.3% of REBLOZYL-treated patients vs. 2% of placebo-treated patients in the double- blind phase of the study, with spinal cord compression due to EMH masses occurring in 1 patient with a prior history of EMH. REBLOZYL is not indicated for use in patients with non-transfusion-dependent beta thalassemia.
The column begins with a discussion of evidence in support of restrictive and liberal transfusion thresholds followed by an overview of clinical indications for transfusion. Tolich also discusses adherence measures that PBM programs can use to evaluate their performance.
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